SYMBOLCOMMON_NAMEaka. SYNONYMS
win.blackenergy (Back to overview)

BlackEnergy

Actor(s): Sandworm


BlackEnergy, its first version shortened as BE1, started as a crimeware being sold in the Russian cyber underground as early as 2007. Initially, it was designed as a toolkit for creating botnets for conducting DDoS attacks. It supported a variety of flooding commands including protocols like ICMP, TCP SYN, UDP, HTTP and DNS. Among the high profile targets of cyber attacks utilising BE1 were a Norwegian bank and government websites in Georgia three weeks before Russo-Georgian War.

Version 2 of BlackEnergy, BE2, came in 2008 with a complete code rewrite that introduced a protective layer, a kernel-mode rootkit and a modular architecture. Plugins included mostly DDoS attacks, a spam plugin and two banking authentication plugins to steal from Russian nad Ukrainian banks. The banking plugin was paired with a module designed to destroy the filesystem. Moreover, BE2 was able to
- download and execute a remote file;
- execute a local file on the infected computer;
- update the bot and its plugins;

The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team issued an alert warning that BE2 was leveraging the human-machine interfaces of industrial control systems like GE CIMPLICITY, Advantech/Broadwin WebAccess, and Siemens WinCC to gain access to critical infrastructure networks.

In 2014, the BlackEnergy toolkit, BE3, switched to a lighter footprint with no kernel-mode driver component. Its plugins included:
- operations with victim's filesystem
- spreading with a parasitic infector
- spying features like keylogging, screenshoots or a robust password stealer
- Team viewer and a simple pseudo “remote desktop”
- listing Windows accounts and scanning network
- destroying the system

Typical for distribution of BE3 was heavy use of spear-phishing emails containing Microsoft Word or Excel documents with a malicious VBA macro, Rich Text Format (RTF) documents embedding exploits or a PowerPoint presentation with zero-day exploit CVE-2014-4114.

On 23 December 2015, attackers behind the BlackEnergy malware successfully caused power outages for several hours in different regions of Ukraine. This cyber sabotage against three energy companies has been confirmed by the Ukrainian government. The power grid compromise has become known as the first-of-its-kind cyber warfare attack affecting civilians.

References
2020-05-21PICUS SecuritySüleyman Özarslan
@online{zarslan:20200521:t1055:4400f98, author = {Süleyman Özarslan}, title = {{T1055 Process Injection}}, date = {2020-05-21}, organization = {PICUS Security}, url = {https://www.picussecurity.com/blog/picus-10-critical-mitre-attck-techniques-t1055-process-injection}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-06-03} } T1055 Process Injection
BlackEnergy Cardinal RAT Downdelph Emotet Kazuar RokRAT SOUNDBITE
2020SecureworksSecureWorks
@online{secureworks:2020:iron:3c939bc, author = {SecureWorks}, title = {{IRON VIKING}}, date = {2020}, organization = {Secureworks}, url = {https://www.secureworks.com/research/threat-profiles/iron-viking}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-05-23} } IRON VIKING
BlackEnergy EternalPetya GreyEnergy Industroyer KillDisk TeleBot TeleDoor
2019-05-08Verizon Communications Inc.Verizon Communications Inc.
@techreport{inc:20190508:2019:3c20a3b, author = {Verizon Communications Inc.}, title = {{2019 Data Breach Investigations Report}}, date = {2019-05-08}, institution = {Verizon Communications Inc.}, url = {https://enterprise.verizon.com/resources/reports/2019-data-breach-investigations-report.pdf}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-05-10} } 2019 Data Breach Investigations Report
BlackEnergy Cobalt Strike DanaBot Gandcrab GreyEnergy Mirai Olympic Destroyer SamSam
2019-01-18Mark Edmondson
@online{edmondson:20190118:black:e66dcec, author = {Mark Edmondson}, title = {{BLACK ENERGY – Analysis}}, date = {2019-01-18}, url = {https://marcusedmondson.com/2019/01/18/black-energy-analysis/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-01-08} } BLACK ENERGY – Analysis
BlackEnergy
2017-09-18ThreatConnectPaul Vann
@online{vann:20170918:casting:87b63a9, author = {Paul Vann}, title = {{Casting a Light on BlackEnergy}}, date = {2017-09-18}, organization = {ThreatConnect}, url = {https://threatconnect.com/blog/casting-a-light-on-blackenergy/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-01-13} } Casting a Light on BlackEnergy
BlackEnergy
2017-07-03ESET ResearchAnton Cherepanov, Robert Lipovsky
@techreport{cherepanov:20170703:blackenergy:2403feb, author = {Anton Cherepanov and Robert Lipovsky}, title = {{BlackEnergy – what we really know about the notorious cyber attacks}}, date = {2017-07-03}, institution = {ESET Research}, url = {https://www.virusbulletin.com/uploads/pdf/magazine/2016/VB2016-Cherepanov-Lipovsky.pdf}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-10-14} } BlackEnergy – what we really know about the notorious cyber attacks
BlackEnergy
2016-01-28Kaspersky LabsGReAT
@online{great:20160128:blackenergy:3c2a914, author = {GReAT}, title = {{BlackEnergy APT Attacks in Ukraine employ spearphishing with Word documents}}, date = {2016-01-28}, organization = {Kaspersky Labs}, url = {https://securelist.com/blackenergy-apt-attacks-in-ukraine-employ-spearphishing-with-word-documents/73440/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-12-20} } BlackEnergy APT Attacks in Ukraine employ spearphishing with Word documents
BlackEnergy
2015-02-17Kaspersky LabsKurt Baumgartner, Maria Garnaeva
@online{baumgartner:20150217:be2:f7ce288, author = {Kurt Baumgartner and Maria Garnaeva}, title = {{BE2 extraordinary plugins, Siemens targeting, dev fails}}, date = {2015-02-17}, organization = {Kaspersky Labs}, url = {https://securelist.com/be2-extraordinary-plugins-siemens-targeting-dev-fails/68838/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-12-20} } BE2 extraordinary plugins, Siemens targeting, dev fails
BlackEnergy
2014-11-03Kaspersky LabsKurt Baumgartner, Maria Garnaeva
@online{baumgartner:20141103:be2:ea8544a, author = {Kurt Baumgartner and Maria Garnaeva}, title = {{BE2 custom plugins, router abuse, and target profiles}}, date = {2014-11-03}, organization = {Kaspersky Labs}, url = {https://securelist.com/be2-custom-plugins-router-abuse-and-target-profiles/67353/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-12-20} } BE2 custom plugins, router abuse, and target profiles
BlackEnergy
2014-10-14ESET ResearchRobert Lipovsky
@online{lipovsky:20141014:cve20144114:49123f0, author = {Robert Lipovsky}, title = {{CVE‑2014‑4114: Details on August BlackEnergy PowerPoint Campaigns}}, date = {2014-10-14}, organization = {ESET Research}, url = {https://www.welivesecurity.com/2014/10/14/cve-2014-4114-details-august-blackenergy-powerpoint-campaigns/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-11-14} } CVE‑2014‑4114: Details on August BlackEnergy PowerPoint Campaigns
BlackEnergy
2010-07-15Kaspersky LabsDmitry Tarakanov
@online{tarakanov:20100715:black:e6d41f9, author = {Dmitry Tarakanov}, title = {{Black DDoS}}, date = {2010-07-15}, organization = {Kaspersky Labs}, url = {https://securelist.com/black-ddos/36309/}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-12-20} } Black DDoS
BlackEnergy
2010-03-03SecureworksJoe Stewart
@online{stewart:20100303:blackenergy:d3aa259, author = {Joe Stewart}, title = {{BlackEnergy Version 2 Threat Analysis}}, date = {2010-03-03}, organization = {Secureworks}, url = {https://www.secureworks.com/research/blackenergy2}, language = {English}, urldate = {2019-10-15} } BlackEnergy Version 2 Threat Analysis
BlackEnergy
2010-03-03FireEyeJulia Wolf
@online{wolf:20100303:black:6ee657a, author = {Julia Wolf}, title = {{Black Energy Crypto}}, date = {2010-03-03}, organization = {FireEye}, url = {https://web.archive.org/web/20140428201836/http://www.fireeye.com/blog/technical/malware-research/2010/03/black-energy-crypto.html}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-02-27} } Black Energy Crypto
BlackEnergy
2007-10Arbor NetworksJose Nazario
@techreport{nazario:200710:blackenergy:f414256, author = {Jose Nazario}, title = {{BlackEnergy DDoS Bot Analysis}}, date = {2007-10}, institution = {Arbor Networks}, url = {http://atlas-public.ec2.arbor.net/docs/BlackEnergy+DDoS+Bot+Analysis.pdf}, language = {English}, urldate = {2020-01-07} } BlackEnergy DDoS Bot Analysis
BlackEnergy
Yara Rules
[TLP:WHITE] win_blackenergy_auto (20200529 | autogenerated rule brought to you by yara-signator)
rule win_blackenergy_auto {

    meta:
        author = "Felix Bilstein - yara-signator at cocacoding dot com"
        date = "2020-05-30"
        version = "1"
        description = "autogenerated rule brought to you by yara-signator"
        tool = "yara-signator v0.4.0"
        tool_config = "callsandjumps;datarefs;binvalue"
        malpedia_reference = "https://malpedia.caad.fkie.fraunhofer.de/details/win.blackenergy"
        malpedia_rule_date = "20200529"
        malpedia_hash = "92c362319514e5a6da26204961446caa3a8b32a8"
        malpedia_version = "20200529"
        malpedia_license = "CC BY-SA 4.0"
        malpedia_sharing = "TLP:WHITE"

    /* DISCLAIMER
     * The strings used in this rule have been automatically selected from the
     * disassembly of memory dumps and unpacked files, using yara-signator.
     * The code and documentation / approach is published here:
     * https://github.com/fxb-cocacoding/yara-signator
     * As Malpedia is used as data source, please note that for a given
     * number of families, only single samples are documented.
     * This likely impacts the degree of generalization these rules will offer.
     * Take the described generation method also into consideration when you
     * apply the rules in your use cases and assign them confidence levels.
     */


    strings:
        $sequence_0 = { 83c104 8bc2 83e804 7828 3bc8 7324 8b06 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   83c104               | add                 ecx, 4
            //   8bc2                 | mov                 eax, edx
            //   83e804               | sub                 eax, 4
            //   7828                 | js                  0x2a
            //   3bc8                 | cmp                 ecx, eax
            //   7324                 | jae                 0x26
            //   8b06                 | mov                 eax, dword ptr [esi]

        $sequence_1 = { 7438 56 8b7720 8b4628 894720 8b4620 85c0 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   7438                 | je                  0x3a
            //   56                   | push                esi
            //   8b7720               | mov                 esi, dword ptr [edi + 0x20]
            //   8b4628               | mov                 eax, dword ptr [esi + 0x28]
            //   894720               | mov                 dword ptr [edi + 0x20], eax
            //   8b4620               | mov                 eax, dword ptr [esi + 0x20]
            //   85c0                 | test                eax, eax

        $sequence_2 = { 50 56 ff75d0 89b558ffffff ff75f8 ff15???????? }
            // n = 6, score = 200
            //   50                   | push                eax
            //   56                   | push                esi
            //   ff75d0               | push                dword ptr [ebp - 0x30]
            //   89b558ffffff         | mov                 dword ptr [ebp - 0xa8], esi
            //   ff75f8               | push                dword ptr [ebp - 8]
            //   ff15????????         |                     

        $sequence_3 = { 53 e8???????? 6a00 ffd0 8b5f3c 8365c800 03df }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   53                   | push                ebx
            //   e8????????           |                     
            //   6a00                 | push                0
            //   ffd0                 | call                eax
            //   8b5f3c               | mov                 ebx, dword ptr [edi + 0x3c]
            //   8365c800             | and                 dword ptr [ebp - 0x38], 0
            //   03df                 | add                 ebx, edi

        $sequence_4 = { 8d45a8 50 e8???????? c9 c3 55 8bec }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   8d45a8               | lea                 eax, [ebp - 0x58]
            //   50                   | push                eax
            //   e8????????           |                     
            //   c9                   | leave               
            //   c3                   | ret                 
            //   55                   | push                ebp
            //   8bec                 | mov                 ebp, esp

        $sequence_5 = { 894dac 81f900c00000 0f862a020000 b809000000 81f900000100 0f860f010000 b80a000000 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   894dac               | mov                 dword ptr [ebp - 0x54], ecx
            //   81f900c00000         | cmp                 ecx, 0xc000
            //   0f862a020000         | jbe                 0x230
            //   b809000000           | mov                 eax, 9
            //   81f900000100         | cmp                 ecx, 0x10000
            //   0f860f010000         | jbe                 0x115
            //   b80a000000           | mov                 eax, 0xa

        $sequence_6 = { 58 e9???????? 8b45fc 8b4df8 3b4d18 7603 8b4d18 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   58                   | pop                 eax
            //   e9????????           |                     
            //   8b45fc               | mov                 eax, dword ptr [ebp - 4]
            //   8b4df8               | mov                 ecx, dword ptr [ebp - 8]
            //   3b4d18               | cmp                 ecx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x18]
            //   7603                 | jbe                 5
            //   8b4d18               | mov                 ecx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x18]

        $sequence_7 = { 8a08 80f92e 75f4 8bf0 eb10 68f3038515 53 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   8a08                 | mov                 cl, byte ptr [eax]
            //   80f92e               | cmp                 cl, 0x2e
            //   75f4                 | jne                 0xfffffff6
            //   8bf0                 | mov                 esi, eax
            //   eb10                 | jmp                 0x12
            //   68f3038515           | push                0x158503f3
            //   53                   | push                ebx

        $sequence_8 = { e8???????? 6639bdcaf7ffff 740d 8d85c8f7ffff 50 ff15???????? 8d45f4 }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   e8????????           |                     
            //   6639bdcaf7ffff       | cmp                 word ptr [ebp - 0x836], di
            //   740d                 | je                  0xf
            //   8d85c8f7ffff         | lea                 eax, [ebp - 0x838]
            //   50                   | push                eax
            //   ff15????????         |                     
            //   8d45f4               | lea                 eax, [ebp - 0xc]

        $sequence_9 = { 897df4 897df8 ff15???????? 3bc7 740b 8d4801 e8???????? }
            // n = 7, score = 200
            //   897df4               | mov                 dword ptr [ebp - 0xc], edi
            //   897df8               | mov                 dword ptr [ebp - 8], edi
            //   ff15????????         |                     
            //   3bc7                 | cmp                 eax, edi
            //   740b                 | je                  0xd
            //   8d4801               | lea                 ecx, [eax + 1]
            //   e8????????           |                     

    condition:
        7 of them and filesize < 98304
}
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